Category: IoT PCB (page 1 of 10)

Printed Circuit Boards for IoT Devices

Home Automation DIY Garage Lighting System



Check out how I automated my garage lights. DIY project includes 3-way switch, fluorescent lighting, circuit board design, and software. Detailed build article with plans:

Garage Light Controller

Makercise Multi-way Switching video:

Catus Workshop! video:

flash001USA video:


Source

Internet of Things PCB considerations for Startups

Seeing that IoT devices are so newer, you would think that getting an IoT printed circuit board (PCB) project off the ground starts by reinventing the wheel and suffering a good deal of technical difficulties. That is definitely untrue.
Nonetheless it doesn’t indicate that IoT startups have a evident route to fame and fortune. Facing them is quite a lot of design and manufacturing points which are special to these small products. These considerations should be considered for the fresh IoT product to reach your goals.

On the plus side, it’s necessary for IoT startups to find out that the foundation for a successful new product exists. This means that experience and knowhow regarding the design, fabrication and assembly of such leading-edge products are out there. Also, the best advice is for discreet IoT product business men and innovators to become aware of the recommendations that qualified electronics manufacturing services or EMS providers are offering. These corporations together with their engineering staffs have already performed the work with groundbreaking IoT firms in Silicon Valley stepping into the beginning of this surfacing segment.

The PCB of an IoT product is a special beast than the traditional one, which is notably larger and flat. IoT gadgets, conversely, are made up largely of either rigid-flex or flex circuit assemblies, which include their own sets of design layout, fabrication and assembly considerations and detailed aspects.

Layout

A primary factor is to try to find encountered designers who’ve undertaken quite a lot of rigid-flex PCB designs. PCB space for an IoT product is at a premium. So you want the designer to have firsthand layout knowledge to correctly design significant parts on that little room.

Moreover, virtually all IoT gadgets are not stationary; they get substantial movement and turning. Right here, the encountered designer plays a key role in calculating bend ratios and lifecycle iterations as a significant part of a design. Various other significant design layout considerations contain signal trace thickness, number of rigid and flex circuit layers, copper weight and stiffener placement. Stiffeners are utilized on flex circuits to make certain parts attached to the flex circuit keep on being firmly in place to prevent itself from movement.

A new aspect to consider is through-hole element positioning in rigid-flex circuits. Why is that important? Most of the IoT units are founded on surface mount device placement. But nevertheless , there may be through-hole parts, which are often affixed to either the rigid part or the flex part of the board. Through-hole parts are in most cases helpful to connect input/output or I/O signals to the exterior world. Doing this, those signals can be shown having an LCD or LED monitor. Through-hole element placement is a significant concern in an IoT item given that when utilized on the flex section of the board, suitable stiffeners need to be designed and employed for ideal assembly.

Finally in the layout category, the high temperature which parts generate is required to be considered. IoT gadgets are starting to be more elaborate with rigid-flex and flex circuits featuring as many as 12 – 14 layers. Some gadgets are digital. But nevertheless , more and more analog systems are being used in IoT systems. Analog circuitry creates far more heat than digital ones. That means heat expansion plus contraction rate must be taken into account. In tech lingo, this is actually called the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion or CTE and the proper management of it.

Manufacturing

Deciding on the right fabricator is crucial and is linked to the EMS corporation you’ve decided on. The fabricator you’d like must have IoT PCB fabrication practical experience. Among significant considerations here are insuring good adhesions in between layers on both rigid and flex circuit sides, figuring out all of the important calculations and having a robust knowledge of when current transfers from the rigid side to the flex side.

These fabricators must also get an in-depth comprehension of exceptionally compact parts including 0201 and also 00105 device packages, package-on-package, and the utilization of fine-pitch ball-grid array or BGA packaged devices.

Additionally, they need to have knowledge of designing boards with fairly tight tolerances in terms of footprint for those kinds of BGA devices, in terms of up-to-date capabilities like laser direct imaging for putting the solder mask on the board. They ought to have laser drills for via drilling with sizes of 5 mils or under mainly because these IoT devices could be so little that a standard drill size of 5 to 8 mils would possibly not be all you need. They may have to go to a 3 mil, which indicates that you will need to have an advanced laser drilling capability indoors.

In the event you are placing via-in-pad, it is a good way to make use of the small real estate that’s available on the rigid-flex board, nonetheless , it produces problems for assembly. If vias are not fully planar or flat in shape, it may be an obstacle through the assembly of those tiny BGA packaged devices. That’s because non-planar surfaces could endanger the integrity of solder joints.

Sometimes via in pads leave bumps in cases where they’re not scoured appropriately after putting the vias and gold finish on top. In case there are bumps, then the solder joints in the assembly for those tiny BGA balls in those IoT devices wouldn’t be an ideal joint. This might create sporadic connections, which might be a bigger issue to address and remedy. It all boils down to which EMS corporation you are using because they’re the ones who will select the fabrication facility to make a triumphant IoT item for you.

PCB Assembly

It’s crucial to take a look at encountered EMS companies that have successfully assembled IoT and wearable PCBs because they have specialized tooling and fixtures readily existing, which are vital for assembly to assure components are placed properly, accurately and the printing is accomplished correctly.

Printing is usually a difficult task for IoT systems. If it’s a rigid-flex board, then there will be a difference between thicknesses of the rigid and flex circuit portions, indicating a special fixture is required to maintain the complete rigid-flex board planar or absolutely flat to permit effective printing to be achieved.

Startups must be well prepared to discover the most suitable manufacturing partners and EMS enterprises. Doing this they can make sure that they have enough experience beforehand to get the multitude of design, fabrication and assembly details effectively performed since they are crucial to a prosperous and prompt IoT product launch.

Qualcomm CES 2016 booth tour: Snapdragon 820, 820A, 802.11ad, 802.11ac, Windows Continuum and more



Qualcomm Snapdragon 820 is shown in a real phone in LeTV Le Max Pro, with Qualcomm saying that they have 80+ design wins for the Snapdragon 820 custom 64bit processor, now to be mass manufactured on Samsung’s 14nm process technology. Qualcomm also shows their Snapdragon 820 Adreno 530 GPU demos showing off high-end graphics, virtual reality and new display technologies, also Qualcomm WSA8815 audio technology for better sound coming out of built-in speakers for the Smartphones and Tablets market. Scanning people in realtime using Project Tango type structured scanner, IR camera. Qualcomm shows IoT technologies, Qualcomm Vive 802.11ac WiFi with multi-user mimo. Microsoft Windows 10 running on ultra-cheap Qualcomm 210, 410, and Windows continuum extending the Windows 10 desktop from the phone through to the external display using USB Type-C. Qualcomm Atheros Multi-Gigabit 60Ghz Wi-Fi 802.11ad included with the Snapdragon 820 LeTV Le Max Pro Smartphone! Matterport 360 degre camera supported by Qualcomm Ventures and other startups demonstrated. Qualcomm launches Qualcomm 820A for the automitive market and the modular system to upgrade the ARM Processor and PCB of the car to make it future proof.

Source

IoT PCB considerations for Startups

Since IoT products are so cutting edge, you would think that getting an IoT printed circuit board (PCB) project off the ground starts by reinventing the wheel and experiencing a lots of technical problem. That may be untrue.
Nevertheless it doesn’t convey IoT startups have a very clear way to fame and fortune. Facing them is a variety of design and manufacturing issues to consider which are completely unique to these small products. These factors to consider must be looked at for the new IoT device to hit your objectives.

On the plus side, it’s necessary for IoT startups to know that the basic foundation for a successful cool product exists. This means that experience and knowledge regarding the design, fabrication and assembly of these types of state-of-the-art products are accessible. Additionally, the most sage advice is for wise IoT product entrepreneurs and innovators to heed the counsel that veteran electronics manufacturing services or EMS providers have to give. These businesses along with their engineering employees have already practiced the job with groundbreaking IoT businesses in Silicon Valley getting into the very first of this coming market.

The PCB of an IoT device is a unique beast than the traditional one, which is much larger and flat. IoT devices, on the flip side, are made up largely of either rigid-flex or flex circuit assemblies, which come with their very own groups of design layout, fabrication and assembly factors to consider and nuances.

Layout

A top thing to consider is to hunt down qualified designers who’ve performed quite a lot of rigid-flex PCB designs. PCB space for an IoT device is limited. So you want the designer to have directly layout practical experience to correctly design critical elements on that modest space.

Simultaneously, virtually all IoT products are not fixed; they receive sizeable movement and rotating. Here, the qualified designer plays an essential role in working out bend ratios and lifecycle iterations as a vital part of a design. Additional critical design layout factors to consider consist of signal trace thickness, number of rigid and flex circuit layers, copper weight and stiffener placement. Stiffeners are used on flex circuits in order to guarantee elements connected to the flex circuit remain closely constantly in place to avoid movement.

One more thing to consider is through-hole component positioning in rigid-flex circuits. What makes that critical? A great deal of IoT units are founded upon surface mount device(SMD) placement. Nevertheless , there may be through-hole elements, which are usually attached to either the rigid portion or the flex part of the board. Through-hole elements are usually used to communicate input/output or I/O signals to the exterior world. Like that, those signals can be displayed by using an LCD or LED monitor. Through-hole component placement is a pretty important account in an IoT system considering that when used on the flex part of the board, appropriate stiffeners need to be designed and put to use for good assembly.

Last of all in the layout category, the high temperature that elements generate is required to be considered. IoT products are increasingly intricate with rigid-flex and flex circuits featuring in excess of 12 – 14 layers. A few products are digital. Nevertheless , ever more analog systems are being utilized in IoT systems. Analog circuitry causes even more heat than digital ones. As a consequence heat expansion and also contraction rate should be evaluated. In tech lingo, that is called the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion or CTE and the correct handling of it.

Fabrication

Selecting the best fabricator is very important and is linked to the EMS partner you’ve picked out. The fabricator you want should have IoT PCB fabrication practical experience. Among critical factors to consider here are making certain tough adhesions in between layers on both rigid and flex circuit sides, bearing in mind all of the crucial calculations and possessing a good know-how about when current transfers from the rigid side to the flex side.

Such fabricators also need to possess an in-depth comprehension of remarkably small parts for example 0201 as well as 00105 device packages, package-on-package, and the use of fine-pitch ball-grid array or BGA packaged devices.

They also need to have experience in designing boards with pretty tight tolerances in terms of footprint for those kinds of BGA devices, in terms of up-to-date capabilities like laser direct imaging for putting the solder mask on the board. They should have laser drills for via drilling with sizes of 5 mils or under mainly because these IoT devices could be so compact that a typical drill size of 5 to 8 mils probably won’t suffice. They could need to go to a 3 mil, which means that you should have an leading-edge laser drilling capability indoors.

In the event you are placing via-in-pad, it is a fantastic way to take advantage of the small real estate that is available on the rigid-flex board, but it produces difficulties for assembly. If vias aren’t entirely planar or flat in shape, it becomes a difficulty all through the assembly of those tiny BGA packaged devices. That is because non-planar surfaces may put at risk the integrity of solder joints.

Sometimes via in pads leave bumps if they’re not cleaned appropriately after adding the vias and gold finish on the top. In the event that there are bumps, then the solder joints in the assembly for those tiny BGA balls in those IoT devices wouldn’t be an excellent joint. It may create intermittent connections, which might be a larger issue to treat and mend. It all boils down to which EMS partner you are using because they’re the ones who will choose the fabrication plant to make a thriving IoT product for you.

PCB Assembly

It’s very important to pay a visit to qualified EMS companies that have efficiently assembled IoT and wearable PCBs because they have unique tooling and fixtures readily obtainable, which are essential for assembly to guarantee components are placed appropriately, accurately and the printing is carried out effectively.

Printing may be a issue for IoT systems. If it’s a rigid-flex board, then there exists a change between thicknesses of the rigid and flex circuit portions, which implies a special fixture is needed to maintain the complete rigid-flex board planar or totally flat to permit effective printing to become reached.

Startups need to be ready to decide on the correct manufacturing partners and EMS corporations. In this way they can ensure that they’ve ample experience in advance to get the multitude of design, fabrication and assembly details correctly performed because they are crucial to a prosperous and prompt IoT product roll-out.

Electronic Product Design Competition 2016 – City University of Hong Kong



Students need to design a robot to pick an object and deliver it to the target. There is an obstacle to block one of the track, the robot need to find the only way to the goal by themselves.

The students utilized DesignSpark PCB to complete their PCB layout designs with component sponsorship by RS.

Source

Internet of Things PCB considerations for Startups

Because IoT devices are so new, you would assume that getting an IoT printed circuit board (PCB) project off the ground starts by reinventing the wheel and struggling with a substantial amount of technical headaches. That may be not the case.
Nevertheless it doesn’t convey IoT startups have a apparent method to fame. Facing them is various design and manufacturing issues which are distinctive to these small products. These factors must be thought about for the fresh new IoT product to achieve success.

On the plus side, it’s vital for IoT startups to know that the basic foundation for a successful awesome product does exist. This means that experience and knowhow concerning the design, fabrication and assembly of such superior products are readily available. Also, the most sage advice is for smart IoT product enterprisers and innovators to pay attention to the recommendation that seasoned electronics manufacturing services or EMS vendors provide. These corporations along with their engineering employees have previously practiced the work with revolutionary IoT corporations in Silicon Valley entering into the early stages of this emerging segment.

The PCB of an IoT device is a special beast than the traditional one, which is greatly larger and flat. IoT units, conversely, are comprised largely of either rigid-flex or flex circuit assemblies, which include their very own groups of design layout, fabrication and assembly factors and subtleties.

Layout

A principal consideration is to try to get experienced designers who’ve finished a number of rigid-flex PCB designs. PCB space for an IoT device is limited. So you’d like the designer to have direct layout knowledge to effectively design crucial components on that small space.

Additionally, the majority of IoT gadgets aren’t stationary; they sustain significant movement and twisting. Here, the experienced designer plays a vital role in computing bend ratios and lifecycle iterations as a serious part of a design. Other crucial design layout factors encompass signal trace thickness, number of rigid and flex circuit layers, copper weight and stiffener placement. Stiffeners are used on flex circuits to assure components mounted on the flex circuit continue being snugly in place to prevent movement.

The other factor is through-hole element placement in rigid-flex circuits. How come is that vital? A lot of IoT units are based on surface mount device(SMD) placement. But there may be through-hole components, which are normally designed into either the rigid portion or the flex part of the board. Through-hole components are in general used to communicate input/output or I/O signals to the outer world. That way, those signals can be displayed using an LCD or LED monitor. Through-hole element placement is a key thing to consider in an IoT device as when applied on the flex part of the board, appropriate stiffeners have to be designed and used for excellent assembly.

Finally in the layout category, the high temperature which components generate has to be looked at. IoT gadgets are ever more elaborate with rigid-flex and flex circuits featuring in excess of 12 – 14 layers. Several gadgets are digital. But progressively analog products are being used in IoT products. Analog circuitry makes a great deal more heat than digital ones. As a consequence heat expansion and contraction rate are required to be thought about. In tech lingo, this is actually referred to as the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion or CTE and the proper control over it.

Fabrication

Finding the right fabricator is important and is linked to the EMS partner you have picked. The fabricator you want needs to have IoT PCB fabrication experience. Among crucial factors here are making certain sturdy adhesions in between layers on both rigid and flex circuit sides, knowing all the essential calculations and getting an excellent knowledge of when current moves from the rigid side to the flex side.

These fabricators also must get an in-depth comprehension of exceptionally small components including 0201 and also 00105 device packages, package-on-package, and the utilization of fine-pitch ball-grid array or BGA packaged devices.

And also they should have experience of designing boards with pretty tight tolerances in terms of footprint for those kinds of BGA devices, in terms of up-to-date capabilities like laser direct imaging for putting the solder mask on the board. They ought to have laser drills for via drilling with sizes of 5 mils or under mainly because these IoT devices could be so modest that a typical drill size of 5 to 8 mils might not be all you need. They could need to go to a 3 mil, meaning that you must have an leading-edge laser drilling capability indoors.

In the event you’re placing via-in-pad, it’s really a good way to utilize the small land that is available on the rigid-flex board, however , it poses trouble for assembly. If vias aren’t completely planar or flat in shape, it becomes hard all through the assembly of those tiny BGA packaged devices. The reason is non-planar surfaces can threaten the integrity of solder joints.

Oftentimes via in pads leave bumps if they’re not cleaned properly after adding the vias and gold finish at the top. If there are bumps, then the solder joints in the assembly for those tiny BGA balls in those IoT devices wouldn’t be a perfect joint. It might create irregular connections, which might be a larger issue to deal with and fix. It all boils down to which EMS partner you’re working with because they’re the ones who will decide on the fabrication house to make a triumphant IoT product for you.

PCB Assembly

It’s very important to go to experienced EMS companies that have successfully assembled IoT and wearable PCBs as they have special tooling and fixtures already obtainable, which are needed for assembly in order to guarantee components are placed perfectly, precisely and the printing is performed perfectly.

Printing could be a challenge for IoT products. If it’s a rigid-flex board, then you can find a change between thicknesses of the rigid and flex circuit portions, indicating a special fixture is required to maintain the complete rigid-flex board planar or completely flat to allow for effective printing to become reached.

Startups need to be ready to select the proper manufacturing partners and EMS businesses. Doing this they can confirm they have enough experience before hand to get the multitude of design, fabrication and assembly details efficiently performed as they are key to a prosperous and on-time IoT product release.

Contactless payment using smart wearables



www.infineon.com/wearable-devices

Presenting Infineon’s breakthrough Boosted NFC Secure Element in innovative smart wearable devices.
Infineon’s Boosted NFC Secure Element is an all-in-one solution for secure NFC payments. Combining ultra-low power consumption and an ultra-small PCB footprint with extraordinary contactless performance, it is the perfect fit for today’s smart wearable devices.

Source

IoT PCB things to consider for Startups

Given that IoT appliances are so cutting edge, you would assume that getting an IoT printed circuit board (PCB) project off the ground starts by reinventing the wheel and suffering from a wide range of technical trouble. That is most certainly untrue.
Nevertheless it doesn’t indicate that IoT startups have a straightforward approach to fame and fortune. Facing them is a lot of design and manufacturing issues which are completely unique to these small products. These considerations should be thought of for the new IoT device to be successful.

On the plus side, it’s essential for IoT startups to find out that the foundation for a successful cool product exists. What this means is experience and knowledge regarding the design, fabrication and assembly of these complex products are accessible. Additionally, the best advice is for heady IoT product entrepreneurs and forerunners to heed the counsel that knowledgeable electronics manufacturing services or EMS providers offer. These corporations and also their engineering team members already have undertaken this work with revolutionary IoT companies in Silicon Valley participating in the very first of this rising market.

The PCB of an IoT unit is a distinct beast than the traditional one, which is substantially larger and flat. IoT units, on the other hand, consist mainly of either rigid-flex or flex circuit assemblies, which include their very own categories of design layout, fabrication and assembly considerations and detailed aspects.

Layout

A primary factor is to hunt down professional designers who’ve finished loads of rigid-flex PCB designs. PCB space for an IoT unit is tight. So you want the designer to have directly layout practical experience to successfully design vital elements on that small space.

On top of that, almost all IoT systems are not fixed; they sustain extensive movement and turning. Here, the professional designer plays an essential role in working out bend ratios and lifecycle iterations as a serious part of a design. Additional vital design layout considerations include signal trace thickness, number of rigid and flex circuit layers, copper weight and stiffener placement. Stiffeners are employed on flex circuits to make sure that elements connected to the flex circuit continue being tightly in place to stop movement.

An extra concern is through-hole element placement in rigid-flex circuits. Why’s that key? Most IoT devices are founded on surface mount device(SMD) placement. Nevertheless , there could be through-hole elements, which are typically attached to either the rigid portion or the flex part of the board. Through-hole elements are normally used to connect input/output or I/O signals to the outer world. That way, those signals can show up employing an LCD or LED monitor. Through-hole element placement is a critical concern in an IoT device because when applied on the flex part of the board, appropriate stiffeners have to be designed and applied for ideal assembly.

Eventually in the layout category, the heat which elements generate ought to be taken into consideration. IoT systems are starting to be sophisticated with rigid-flex and flex circuits featuring as many as 12 – 14 layers. A few systems are digital. Nevertheless , more and more analog systems are being exercised in IoT systems. Analog circuitry delivers a great deal more heat than digital ones. It implies heat expansion and also contraction rate has to be considered. In tech lingo, that is termed as the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion or CTE and the effective handling of it.

Manufacturing

Choosing the right fabricator is essential and is linked to the EMS enterprise you have decided on. The fabricator you’re looking for has to have IoT PCB fabrication practical experience. Amongst vital considerations here are ensuring solid adhesions between layers on both rigid and flex circuit sides, realizing all of the crucial calculations and getting a strong comprehension of when current moves from the rigid side to the flex side.

Such fabricators also need to have an in-depth comprehension of very small parts like 0201 and also 00105 device packages, package-on-package, and the utilization of fine-pitch ball-grid array or BGA packaged devices.

Additionally they must have experience in designing boards with truly tight tolerances in terms of footprint for those types of BGA devices, in terms of up-to-date capabilities like laser direct imaging for putting the solder mask on the board. They need to have laser drills for via drilling with sizes of 5 mils or under mainly because these IoT products could be so compact that a typical drill size of 5 to 8 mils may not be sufficient. They could need to go to a 3 mil, meaning you should get an leading-edge laser drilling capability on-site.

In cases where you’re placing via-in-pad, it’s a good way to make use of the small space that’s available on the rigid-flex board, but it poses problems for assembly. If vias are not completely planar or flat in shape, it may be an issue over the assembly of those tiny BGA packaged devices. That’s because non-planar surfaces may put in danger the integrity of solder joints.

At times via in pads leave bumps if they’re not scrubbed thoroughly after installing the vias and gold finish on top. In the event there are bumps, then the solder joints in the assembly for those tiny BGA balls in those IoT devices wouldn’t be a great joint. It may create intermittent connections, which can be a larger issue to cope with and improve. It all boils down to which EMS enterprise you’re choosing because they’re the ones who will find the fabrication house to make a profitable IoT device for you.

PCB Assembly

It’s vital to pay a visit to professional EMS companies that have correctly assembled IoT and wearable PCBs as they have specialized tooling and fixtures already available, which are needed for assembly to make sure that components are placed properly, exactly and the printing is performed appropriately.

Printing is usually a obstacle for IoT systems. If it’s a rigid-flex board, then you will find there’s a difference between thicknesses of the rigid and flex circuit portions, signifying a special fixture is required to retain the complete rigid-flex board planar or completely flat to make effective printing to become carried out.

Startups really should be well prepared to discover the suitable manufacturing partners and EMS corporations. By doing this they can be certain they have enough experience in advance to get the multitude of design, fabrication and assembly details effectively performed as they are key to a successful and on time IoT product roll-out.

DC Hipot | “How-To” Video



DC Hipots can be used for the following testing applications: cable, transformers, electrical switchgear, terminations, motors generators and other electrical apparatus.

Today we’re going to take you behind-the-scenes to do a live test with our 800PL series Portable DC Hipot Testers. Here at HAEFELY HIPOTRONICS we always stress the importance of safety. So be sure to check with your own company’s guidelines for personal protective equipment.

This unit is our 880PL DC Hipot tester. It’s capable of putting out 80kV at 10mA. Other models in the 800 series follow a similar testing procedure, but today I’m demonstrate testing on a 15kV-rated URD cable.

While the power is off, connect ac power supply to the unit and 120V/60Hz power strip. Also, connect high voltage, ground, and return leads. Then connect the other ends of your leads back to your unit. Also, be sure your interlock plug is connected.

Now it’s time to make sure that all nonessential personnel are out of the testing area so you can begin your test. Set your current range to max, and set your voltage range to the desired setting. My cable is only rated for 15kV, so I’m going to use the lowest 0-20kV setting. Make sure your voltage control is lowered all the way to zero. Turn on the ac power switch, and this beacon here will light up to indicate there is power to the unit.

From a safe position, turn on your high voltage. This beacon will light red indicating that you are ready to start your test.Slowly raise your voltage to the desired setting. For me, that’s going to be about 13kv. You can hold your voltage for as long as your test specifies.
Now that the voltage is holding on my device under test, I’m going to check the leakage current on the current meter.

Right now the current meter range is 0-10 ma. As you can see, the current is nowhere near 1 milliamp, so I’m going to adjust the current range to go into microamps. As you can see, we’ve got about 4 microamps of leakage current. Now I’m going to return my current meter to the 0-10 milliamp setting.

Our test has run long enough, so I’m going to go ahead and slowly lower my voltage back down. I’m going to turn my high voltage off, and my ac power off. It’s important to make sure your unit is properly grounded, so I’m going to use a grounding stick. Now you’re ready to disconnect your specimen…and pack up the 880 for another test.

Call our Sales Department at 845.230.9245.
Request a free quote anytime online.
Learn more at www.hipotronics.com.
Read our 800 Series Datasheet.
Get accessories: sales@hipotronics.com.

HAEFELY HIPOTRONICS has a policy of continuous product improvement. Therefore we reserve the right to change design and specification without notice.

Source

Internet of Things PCB ways to care for Startups

As IoT appliances are so innovative, you would assume that getting an IoT printed circuit board (PCB) project off the ground starts by reinventing the wheel and finding your way through a number of technical problem. That may be false.
However it doesn’t mean IoT startups have a very clear way to stardom. Facing them is a number of design and manufacturing points that are completely unique to these small products. These points ought to be taken into consideration for the fresh IoT product to achieve success.

On the plus side, it’s important for IoT startups to recognize that the foundation for a successful new product exists. This simply means experience and knowhow concerning the design, fabrication and assembly of these cutting-edge products are accessible. Also, the best advice is for prudent IoT product enterprisers and leaders to follow the recommendations that veteran electronics manufacturing services or EMS vendors provide. These corporations along with their engineering staffs have executed the work with revolutionary IoT firms in Silicon Valley stepping into the very first of this appearing industry.

The PCB of an IoT unit is a special beast than the traditional one, which is notably larger and flat. IoT devices, in comparison, are made up mostly of either rigid-flex or flex circuit assemblies, which come with their own groups of design layout, fabrication and assembly points and detailed aspects.

Layout

A key factor is to search out skilled designers who have completed numerous rigid-flex PCB designs. PCB space for an IoT unit is confined. So you want the designer to have direct layout practical experience to productively design crucial components on that compact area.

Furthermore, nearly all IoT systems aren’t fixed; they obtain sizeable movement and twisting. Here, the skilled designer plays an important role in computing bend ratios and lifecycle iterations as a significant part of a design. Other crucial design layout points involve signal trace thickness, number of rigid and flex circuit layers, copper weight and stiffener placement. Stiffeners are utilized on flex circuits to ensure that components placed on the flex circuit keep on being firmly constantly in place to stop movement.

An alternate aspect to consider is through-hole part positioning in rigid-flex circuits. How come is that vital? Most IoT devices are founded upon surface mount device placement. Nevertheless , there may be through-hole components, which are in most cases designed into either the rigid part or the flex portion of the board. Through-hole components are often utilized to connect input/output or I/O signals to the exterior world. Doing this, those signals can show up using an LCD or LED monitor. Through-hole part placement is a critical account in an IoT device given that when applied to the flex part of the board, suitable stiffeners have to be designed and employed for proper assembly.

Last but not least in the layout category, the heat that components generate is required to be thought of. IoT systems are starting to be challenging with rigid-flex and flex circuits featuring more than 12 – 14 layers. A few systems are digital. Nevertheless , ever more analog units are being used in IoT units. Analog circuitry stimulates way more heat than digital ones. It indicates heat expansion and then contraction rate must be thought of. In tech lingo, it is referred to as the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion or CTE and the right handling of it.

Manufacturing

Finding the right fabricator is significant and is linked to the EMS company you’ve determined. The fabricator you would like has to have IoT PCB fabrication experience. Among crucial points here are ensuring tough adhesions between layers on both rigid and flex circuit sides, comprehending all of the significant calculations and possessing a strong comprehension of when current transfers from the rigid side to the flex side.

Such fabricators must also possess an in-depth know-how about extremely little parts like 0201 as well as 00105 device packages, package-on-package, and the employment of fine-pitch ball-grid array or BGA packaged devices.

They also must have expertise in designing boards with very tight tolerances in terms of footprint for those types of BGA devices, in terms of up-to-date capabilities like laser direct imaging for putting the solder mask on the board. They must have laser drills for via drilling with sizes of 5 mils or under because these IoT products could be so small that a standard drill size of 5 to 8 mils may not be sufficient. They might ought to go to a 3 mil, meaning that you need to have an innovative laser drilling capability in house.

In the event that you’re placing via-in-pad, it’s a fantastic way to take advantage of the small space that’s available on the rigid-flex board, yet it presents problems for assembly. If vias are not 100 % planar or flat in shape, it will be difficult during the assembly of those tiny BGA packaged devices. That’s because non-planar surfaces can easily endanger the integrity of solder joints.

In some cases via in pads leave bumps in the event they’re not cleaned thoroughly after positioning the vias and gold finish at the top. In the event there are bumps, then the solder joints in the assembly for those tiny BGA balls in those IoT devices may not be a great joint. This might create spotty connections, which can be a bigger issue to handle and remedy. It all boils down to which EMS company you’re using because they’re the ones who will pick the fabrication factory to make a thriving IoT item for you.

PCB Assembly

It’s essential to look at skilled EMS companies that have successfully assembled IoT and wearable PCBs because they have special tooling and fixtures already existing, which are vital for assembly to ensure that components are placed effectively, precisely and the printing is conducted in the right way.

Printing may be a challenge for IoT units. If it’s a rigid-flex board, then you can find a difference between thicknesses of the rigid and flex circuit portions, indicating a special fixture is required to maintain the complete rigid-flex board planar or absolutely flat to make effective printing to be accomplished.

Startups have to be all set to decide on the proper manufacturing partners and EMS firms. In this way they can make sure they have got sufficient experience before hand to get the multitude of design, fabrication and assembly details successfully performed because they are crucial to a lucrative and prompt IoT product roll-out.

Voja Antonic: Hacking the SuperConference Badge



There are only a handful of people who can say they’ve built several successful electronic badges for conferences. Voja Antonic is not just on that list, he’s among the leaders in the field. There are a lot of pressures in this type of design challenge: aesthetics, functionality, and of course cost. If you want to know how to make an exposed-PCB product that will be loved by the user, you need to study Voja’s work on the 2016 Hackaday SuperConference Badge.

Voja took ill leading up to the conference. He made it to the event but without a voice he asked Mike Szczys to give his badge design talk for him.

Read the article:
What Makes the Perfect Hardware Badge

Learn more about the SuperConference Badge:
https://hackaday.io/project/16401

Learn more about the Hackaday SuperConference:
https://hackaday.io/superconference/

Source

Internet of Things PCB ways to care for Startups

Considering that IoT products are so cutting edge, you would assume that getting an IoT printed circuit board (PCB) project off the ground starts by reinventing the wheel and finding your way through a whole lot of technical problem. That may be far from the truth.
Nevertheless it doesn’t imply IoT startups have a apparent route to stardom. Facing them is many different design and manufacturing factors to consider which are distinctive to these small products. These factors need to be thought of for the new IoT device to achieve success.

On the plus side, it’s necessary for IoT startups to understand that the basic foundation for a successful awesome product exists. What this means is experience and knowledge relating to the design, fabrication and assembly of these kinds of innovative products are obtainable. Additionally, the best advice is for discreet IoT product businessmen and leaders to focus on the advice that professional electronics manufacturing services or EMS vendors have to give you. These businesses and also their engineering team members have performed the job with revolutionary IoT businesses in Silicon Valley moving into the very first of this surfacing field.

The PCB of an IoT device is a special beast than the traditional one, which is a great deal larger and flat. IoT gadgets, on the flip side, consist generally of either rigid-flex or flex circuit assemblies, which come with their own sets of design layout, fabrication and assembly factors and subtleties.

Layout

A principal concern is to try to find expert designers who’ve achieved a considerable amount of rigid-flex PCB designs. PCB space for an IoT device is scarce. So you want the designer to have firsthand layout knowledge to successfully design crucial components on that limited space.

In addition, the majority of IoT devices aren’t fixed; they sustain sizeable movement and folding. Here, the expert designer plays a significant role in computing bend ratios and lifecycle iterations as a important part of a design. Some other crucial design layout factors comprise of signal trace thickness, number of rigid and flex circuit layers, copper weight and stiffener placement. Stiffeners are utilized on flex circuits to guarantee components mounted on the flex circuit continue to be closely in position to stop movement.

One more account is through-hole part placement in rigid-flex circuits. How come is that critical? Nearly all of IoT items are founded on surface mount device placement. But nonetheless , there could be through-hole components, which are usually put on either the rigid portion or the flex area of the board. Through-hole components are in most cases used to connect input/output or I/O signals to the exterior world. That way, those signals can be demonstrated employing an LCD or LED monitor. Through-hole part placement is a significant consideration in an IoT item considering that when attached to the flex part of the board, appropriate stiffeners should be designed and implemented for excellent assembly.

Then finally in the layout category, the heat which components bring in must be considered. IoT devices are more and more complicated with rigid-flex and flex circuits featuring approximately 12 – 14 layers. Some devices are digital. But nonetheless , increasingly analog units are being exercised in IoT units. Analog circuitry produces considerably more heat than digital ones. This would mean heat expansion as well as contraction rate has to be taken into account. In tech lingo, this is actually generally known as the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion or CTE and the correct remedy for it.

Manufacturing

Choosing the best fabricator is essential and is linked to the EMS partner you have picked out. The fabricator you’d like require IoT PCB fabrication practical experience. Among crucial factors here are insuring durable adhesions between layers on both rigid and flex circuit sides, figuring out all of the crucial calculations and obtaining an excellent comprehension of when current transfers from the rigid side to the flex side.

These fabricators should also have an in-depth comprehension of tremendously compact parts for instance 0201 and 00105 device packages, package-on-package, and the employment of fine-pitch ball-grid array or BGA packaged devices.

Furthermore they ought to have knowledge of designing boards with very tight tolerances in terms of footprint for those kinds of BGA devices, in terms of up-to-date capabilities like laser direct imaging for putting the solder mask on the board. They ought to have laser drills for via drilling with sizes of 5 mils or under mainly because these IoT devices could be so little that a common drill size of 5 to 8 mils may not be all you need. They might have to go to a 3 mil, which means you need to have an superior laser drilling capability on-site.

In cases where you are placing via-in-pad, it’s really a good way to utilize the small land that is available on the rigid-flex board, but it produces problems for assembly. If vias are not 100 % planar or flat in shape, it might be tricky through the assembly of those tiny BGA packaged devices. This comes about because non-planar surfaces might threaten the integrity of solder joints.

Occasionally via in pads leave bumps in the event they’re not scrubbed thoroughly after adding the vias and gold finish on the top. In cases where there are bumps, then the solder joints in the assembly for those tiny BGA balls in those IoT devices would not be an excellent joint. This may create sporadic connections, which might be a greater issue to treat and take care of. It all boils down to which EMS partner you’re choosing because they’re the ones who will select the fabrication house to make a profitable IoT device for you.

PCB Assembly

It’s very important to pay a visit to expert EMS companies that have proficiently assembled IoT and wearable PCBs since they have specialized tooling and fixtures readily obtainable, which are vital for assembly to guarantee components are placed perfectly, precisely and the printing is accomplished perfectly.

Printing could be a headache for IoT units. If it’s a rigid-flex board, then there’s a difference between thicknesses of the rigid and flex circuit portions, indicating a special fixture is needed to keep the complete rigid-flex board planar or entirely flat to allow for effective printing to become achieved.

Startups ought to be all set to select the proper manufacturing partners and EMS businesses. Doing this they can guarantee they have got ample experience before hand to get the multitude of design, fabrication and assembly details efficiently performed as they are key to a victorious and punctual IoT product launch.

How to build simple automatic water-level controller. by Nithin Mohan.



follow me : http://nithinmohann.wordpress.com/

its a video about , how to build simple and advanced water level controller, with level indicator and overflow safety alarm.

it’s one of my home project. This device is for, automatically control the water level in the over head tank. if the water level is low, automatically turns on the pump motor, when its full, circuit automatically stops the pump motor.
This device also indicates, water level in the tank, shows how much water is available in the tank. Another feature is, its beeps an Alarm, in overflow, in case of system failure or manual filling.

Source

Internet of Things PCB things to consider for Startups

Considering that IoT devices are so fresh, you would consider that getting an IoT printed circuit board (PCB) project off the ground starts by reinventing the wheel and suffering from a whole lot of technical troubles and delays. That may be not the case.
Nonetheless it doesn’t imply IoT startups have a evident route to fame. Facing them is a lot of design and manufacturing points to consider which are completely unique to these small products. These concerns should be thought about for the new IoT product to succeed.

On the plus side, it’s essential for IoT startups to recognise that the foundation for a successful new product does exist. This indicates experience and knowledge concerning the design, fabrication and assembly of these kinds of complex products are existing. And the most sage advice is for wise IoT product business men and creators to listen to the advice that expert electronics manufacturing services or EMS suppliers have to give. These businesses along with their engineering staffs have already implemented the job with revolutionary IoT companies in Silicon Valley getting into the initial phases of this promising field.

The PCB of an IoT unit is a special beast than the traditional one, which is much larger and flat. IoT products, in comparison, are made up mainly of either rigid-flex or flex circuit assemblies, which include their very own sets of design layout, fabrication and assembly concerns and subtleties.

Layout

A foremost factor is to find skilled designers who have undertaken a number of rigid-flex PCB designs. PCB space for an IoT unit is confined. So you want the designer to have directly layout working experience to appropriately design essential components on that small room.

In addition, most IoT gadgets are not fixed; they obtain substantial movement and folding. Here, the skilled designer plays an essential role in computing bend ratios and lifecycle iterations as a significant part of a design. Various other essential design layout concerns comprise of signal trace thickness, number of rigid and flex circuit layers, copper weight and stiffener placement. Stiffeners are employed on flex circuits to ensure that components attached with the flex circuit continue being snugly in position in order to avoid movement.

A further factor is through-hole component placement in rigid-flex circuits. Why’s that very important? Most IoT products are based on surface mount device(SMD) placement. But there can be through-hole components, which are normally positioned on either the rigid part or the flex area of the board. Through-hole components are in most cases utilized to connect input/output or I/O signals to the exterior world. Like that, those signals can be displayed utilizing an LCD or LED monitor. Through-hole component placement is a key account in an IoT device due to the fact when utilized on the flex section of the board, suitable stiffeners must be designed and implemented for appropriate assembly.

Last but not least in the layout category, the heat which components deliver is required to be thought of. IoT gadgets are starting to be more elaborate with rigid-flex and flex circuits featuring more than 12 to 14 layers. Several gadgets are digital. But ever more analog units are being used in IoT units. Analog circuitry brings about a great deal more heat than digital ones. What this means is heat expansion and then contraction rate are required to be thought of. In tech lingo, this is called the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion or CTE and the effective handling of it.

Fabrication

Choosing the proper fabricator is significant and is linked to the EMS business you’ve chosen. The fabricator you need must have IoT PCB fabrication experience. Among essential concerns here are insuring sturdy adhesions in between layers on both rigid and flex circuit sides, knowing all of the crucial calculations and possessing a solid understanding of when current moves from the rigid side to the flex side.

Such fabricators also need to have an in-depth knowledge of extremely compact components for instance 0201 as well as 00105 device packages, package-on-package, and the utilization of fine-pitch ball-grid array or BGA packaged devices.

Additionally, they ought to have knowledge of designing boards with fairly tight tolerances in terms of footprint for those sorts of BGA devices, in terms of up-to-date capabilities like laser direct imaging for putting the solder mask on the board. They should have laser drills for via drilling with sizes of 5 mils or under mainly because these IoT devices could be so modest that a regular drill size of 5 to 8 mils may well not be sufficient. They might need to go to a 3 mil, which means you must have an leading-edge laser drilling capability in-house.

In cases where you’re placing via-in-pad, it is a easy way to use the small land that’s available on the rigid-flex board, but it presents difficulties for assembly. If vias are not 100 % planar or flat in shape, it will become an issue over the assembly of those tiny BGA packaged devices. The reason is non-planar surfaces can endanger the integrity of solder joints.

In some cases via in pads leave bumps in case they’re not scoured the proper way after putting the vias and gold finish at the top. When there are bumps, then the solder joints in the assembly for those tiny BGA balls in those IoT devices may not be an appropriate joint. It might create occasional connections, which might be a greater issue to deal with and work on. It all boils down to which EMS business you are using because they’re the ones who will discover the fabrication house to make a profitable IoT product for you.

PCB Assembly

It’s important to head off to skilled EMS companies that have successfully assembled IoT and wearable PCBs as they have unique tooling and fixtures readily obtainable, which are vital for assembly to make sure components are placed effectively, accurately and the printing is conducted the right way.

Printing could be a headache for IoT units. If it’s a rigid-flex board, then you will find there’s a difference between thicknesses of the rigid and flex circuit portions, meaning a special fixture is needed to keep the complete rigid-flex board planar or completely flat to help effective printing to be achieved.

Startups should really be well prepared to find the most suitable manufacturing partners and EMS businesses. In this manner they can guarantee they’ve adequate experience in advance to get the multitude of design, fabrication and assembly details correctly performed as they are crucial to a successful and prompt IoT product launch.

SparkFun Simple Sketches – Beefcake Relay



SparkFun Beefcake Relay Control Kit: https://www.sparkfun.com/products/13815
Github Repository: https://gist.github.com/ShawnHymel/34ca98f17c629810f28dfc8c65ba7613
More Information: https://www.sparkfun.com/news/2114

Your 5V system can wield great power with this big, beefy relay board. How does 20A on the NC contacts and 10A on the NO contacts at 220VAC sound? The SparkFun Beefcake Relay Control Kit contains all the parts you need to get your high-power load under control. Only minimal assembly is required!

The heart of the board is a sealed, SPDT 20A/10A Relay. The relay is controlled by 5V logic through a transistor, and an LED tells you when the relay is closed. This is a kit, so it comes as through-hole parts with assembly required, which makes for some nice soldering practice. Screw terminal connectors on either side of the board make it easy to incorporate into your project.

There are some pretty beefy traces connecting the relay to the load pins, but the 3-pin terminals are only rated for 15A max! If you plan on connecting a larger load, you’ll need to solder directly to the board. As always with high current and voltage, play it safe and use your judgment when deciding how much of a load you want to put on a board – in open airflow the PCB can handle the full 20A for a few minutes at a time, but in an enclosed area heat can build up.

Source

Internet of Things PCB ways to care for Startups

Considering IoT appliances are so newer, you would consider that getting an IoT printed circuit board (PCB) project off the ground starts by reinventing the wheel and experiencing a lot of technical headache. That is most certainly not the case.
Nonetheless it doesn’t suggest IoT startups have a clear method to stardom. Facing them is quite a few design and manufacturing issues to consider that are special to these small products. These points need to be thought of for the fresh new IoT device to hit your objectives.

On the plus side, it’s necessary for IoT startups to recognise that the foundation for a successful awesome product exists. This simply means experience and knowledge concerning the design, fabrication and assembly of these sophisticated products are existing. Additionally, the best advice is for advisable IoT product business men and leaders to listen to the advice that encountered electronics manufacturing services or EMS providers are offering. These corporations along with their engineering employees have previously done the work with pioneering IoT companies in Silicon Valley entering the first stages of this surfacing field.

The PCB of an IoT device is a distinct beast than the traditional one, which is noticeably larger and flat. IoT products, on the flip side, are comprised largely of either rigid-flex or flex circuit assemblies, which come with their own categories of design layout, fabrication and assembly points and nuances.

Layout

A primary factor is to search for seasoned designers who have finished loads of rigid-flex PCB designs. PCB space for an IoT device is confined. So you need the designer to have directly layout practical experience to effectively design vital parts on that compact area.

As well, virtually all IoT gadgets are not fixed; they bring appreciable movement and rotating. Here, the seasoned designer plays a primary role in figuring out bend ratios and lifecycle iterations as a serious part of a design. Some other vital design layout points include things like signal trace thickness, number of rigid and flex circuit layers, copper weight and stiffener placement. Stiffeners are utilized on flex circuits to make certain that parts placed on the flex circuit stay closely in position to prevent movement.

One other thing to consider is through-hole component placement in rigid-flex circuits. Why is that vital? The majority of IoT devices are based on surface mount device placement. However , there can be through-hole parts, which are normally positioned on either the rigid part or the flex part of the board. Through-hole parts are in most cases utilized to communicate input/output or I/O signals to the outside world. That way, those signals can be displayed by using an LCD or LED monitor. Through-hole component placement is a vital concern in an IoT unit as when applied to the flex part of the board, suitable stiffeners should be designed and put to use for effective assembly.

Last of all in the layout category, the heat which parts deliver should be evaluated. IoT gadgets are getting more complex with rigid-flex and flex circuits featuring approximately 12 to 14 layers. Several gadgets are digital. However , progressively analog units are being employed in IoT units. Analog circuitry cranks out somewhat more heat than digital ones. It indicates heat expansion and then contraction rate has to be thought about. In tech lingo, it is termed as the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion or CTE and the proper management of it.

Manufacturing

Deciding on the right fabricator is vital and is linked to the EMS partner you have selected. The fabricator you expect must have IoT PCB fabrication practical experience. Among vital points here are assuring reliable adhesions in between layers on both rigid and flex circuit sides, figuring out all the critical calculations and obtaining a solid understanding of when current moves from the rigid side to the flex side.

These fabricators also have to have an in-depth knowledge of amazingly small-scale parts such as 0201 and also 00105 device packages, package-on-package, and the use of fine-pitch ball-grid array or BGA packaged devices.

They additionally must have experience in designing boards with highly tight tolerances in terms of footprint for those kinds of BGA devices, in terms of up-to-date capabilities like laser direct imaging for putting the solder mask on the board. They must have laser drills for via drilling with sizes of 5 mils or under simply because these IoT devices could be so small that a normal drill size of 5 to 8 mils perhaps may not suffice. They may have to go to a 3 mil, meaning you have to have an state-of-the-art laser drilling capability in-house.

In cases where you’re placing via-in-pad, it’s really a fantastic way to make use of the small real estate which is available on the rigid-flex board, nonetheless , it poses problems for assembly. If vias aren’t 100 % planar or flat in shape, it might be an obstacle all through the assembly of those tiny BGA packaged devices. This is because non-planar surfaces can easily put at risk the integrity of solder joints.

Sometimes via in pads leave bumps if they’re not cleaned the right way after positioning the vias and gold finish on the top. In case there are bumps, then the solder joints in the assembly for those tiny BGA balls in those IoT devices wouldn’t be a perfect joint. It might create occasional connections, which can be a greater issue to deal with and correct. It all boils down to which EMS partner you’re using because they’re the ones who will discover the fabrication plant to make a victorious IoT device for you.

PCB Assembly

It’s essential to go to seasoned EMS companies that have effectively assembled IoT and wearable PCBs as they have special tooling and fixtures readily obtainable, which are vital for assembly to ensure components are placed appropriately, accurately and the printing is performed correctly.

Printing generally is a difficult task for IoT units. If it’s a rigid-flex board, then there is a difference between thicknesses of the rigid and flex circuit portions, which implies a special fixture is necessary to keep the complete rigid-flex board planar or utterly flat to allow for effective printing to become carried out.

Startups must be prepared to opt for the right manufacturing partners and EMS companies. This way they can be certain they’ve sufficient experience beforehand to get the multitude of design, fabrication and assembly details successfully performed since they are key to a successful and timely IoT product roll-out.

Building the Agobo Raspberry Pi Robot



Here’s a video of me building the new Agobo Raspberry Pi A+ robot from 4tronix.co.uk.

It’s a tiny little robot thanks to the use of the A+ Raspberry Pi and clever PCB chassis. This keeps the price down too at just £24.95 for the standard kit.

If you would like a chance of winning this robot, head over to AverageManVsRaspberryPi.com and subscribe!

Source

Internet of Things PCB things to consider for Startups

Considering the fact that IoT devices are so recent, you would consider that getting an IoT printed circuit board (PCB) project off the ground starts by reinventing the wheel and finding your way through a wide range of technical headache. That is definitely untrue.
However it doesn’t mean IoT startups have a certain route to stardom. Facing them is a lot of design and manufacturing things to consider which are unique to these small products. These concerns have to be thought about for the new IoT product to ensure success.

On the plus side, it’s very important for IoT startups to comprehend that the foundation for a successful awesome product exists. This implies experience and knowhow relating to the design, fabrication and assembly of these kinds of leading-edge products are existing. And the best advice is for smart IoT product enterprisers and creators to heed the recommendations that qualified electronics manufacturing services or EMS companies provide. These firms and also their engineering employees have performed the task with pioneering IoT companies in Silicon Valley entering the very first of this rising industry.

The PCB of an IoT unit is a different beast than the traditional one, which is notably larger and flat. IoT devices, on the contrary, comprise generally of either rigid-flex or flex circuit assemblies, which include their very own sets of design layout, fabrication and assembly concerns and subtleties.

Layout

A key factor is to hunt for veteran designers who’ve achieved loads of rigid-flex PCB designs. PCB space for an IoT unit is confined. So you’d like the designer to have firsthand layout expertise to properly design crucial components on that modest area.

Likewise, most IoT units aren’t stationary; they bring sizeable movement and folding. Right here, the veteran designer plays a leading role in working out bend ratios and lifecycle iterations as a significant part of a design. Other crucial design layout concerns include signal trace thickness, number of rigid and flex circuit layers, copper weight and stiffener placement. Stiffeners are widely-used on flex circuits to guarantee components mounted on the flex circuit continue to be tightly in place to stay away from movement.

Yet another account is through-hole component positioning in rigid-flex circuits. Why is that vital? Virtually all of IoT appliances are founded on surface mount device placement. But nonetheless , there might be through-hole components, which are typically put on either the rigid part or the flex part of the board. Through-hole components are usually used to connect input/output or I/O signals to the outer world. That way, those signals can show up by using an LCD or LED monitor. Through-hole component placement is a significant factor in an IoT system given that when used on the flex area of the board, appropriate stiffeners have to be designed and employed for ideal assembly.

Last but not least in the layout category, the high temperature which components bring in ought to be evaluated. IoT units are getting more complicated with rigid-flex and flex circuits featuring above 12 – 14 layers. Some units are digital. But nonetheless , increasingly analog devices are being employed in IoT devices. Analog circuitry creates much more heat than digital ones. That means heat expansion plus contraction rate should be considered. In tech lingo, that is termed as the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion or CTE and the correct management of it.

Fabrication

Selecting the right fabricator is important and is linked to the EMS partner you’ve determined. The fabricator you’d like needs to have IoT PCB fabrication experience. Amongst crucial concerns here are guaranteeing durable adhesions in between layers on both rigid and flex circuit sides, comprehending all the important calculations and obtaining a solid understanding of when current transfers from the rigid side to the flex side.

Such fabricators also must have an in-depth understanding of incredibly small parts just like 0201 as well as 00105 device packages, package-on-package, and the use of fine-pitch ball-grid array or BGA packaged devices.

They even ought to have experience in designing boards with truly tight tolerances in terms of footprint for those kinds of BGA devices, in terms of up-to-date capabilities like laser direct imaging for putting the solder mask on the board. They need to have laser drills for via drilling with sizes of 5 mils or under as these IoT units could be so small that a standard drill size of 5 to 8 mils may well not be all you need. They might need to go to a 3 mil, meaning you should get an excellent laser drilling capability in house.

In the event that you are placing via-in-pad, it is a fantastic way to use the small space that’s available on the rigid-flex board, yet it poses trouble for assembly. If vias aren’t fully planar or flat in shape, it could be tricky all through the assembly of those tiny BGA packaged devices. That’s because non-planar surfaces could threaten the integrity of solder joints.

Occasionally via in pads leave bumps in case they’re not cleaned thoroughly after having the vias and gold finish at the top. When there are bumps, then the solder joints in the assembly for those tiny BGA balls in those IoT devices wouldn’t be a perfect joint. This may create intermittent connections, which might be a larger issue to treat and repair. It all boils down to which EMS partner you’re working with because they’re the ones who will choose the fabrication house to make a successful IoT item for you.

PCB Assembly

It’s vital to look at veteran EMS companies that have effectively assembled IoT and wearable PCBs as they have special tooling and fixtures readily out there, which are necessary for assembly to ensure that components are placed perfectly, accurately and the printing is performed in the correct way.

Printing could be a challenge for IoT devices. If it’s a rigid-flex board, then you will find a change between thicknesses of the rigid and flex circuit portions, which implies a special fixture is needed to keep the complete rigid-flex board planar or fully flat to make effective printing to be achieved.

Startups ought to be prepared to find the proper manufacturing partners and EMS businesses. By doing this they can guarantee they have adequate experience ahead of time to get the multitude of design, fabrication and assembly details effectively performed as they are key to a prosperous and timely IoT product release.

What is SFP transceiver? – FO4SALE.COM



http://www.fiberoptics4sale.com/c/Fiber-Optic-Transceivers.html

This slide shows a typical SFP transceiver module in different views. The first picture is a front view, which shows SFP module has two ports, one port has laser inside, which is the transmitter side. The other port has a photodetector inside, which is the receiver side.

So basically, SFP is a transceiver module, since it has transmitter and receiver in a single unit.

The second picture shows how SFP modules are used on PCB board.

The right picture shows a perspective view of SFP module, so you can clearly see its mechanical outlines.

SFP stands for Small Form-Factor Pluggable. It is a compact, hot-pluggable transceiver used for both telecom and datacom applications.

SFP module’s mechanical interface and electrical interface are specified by a multi-source agreement, also called MSA.

MSA is an industrial group composed of many network component vendors, such as Finisar, Fujikura, Lucent, Molex, Tyco, etc.

Engineers from these major vendors came together and made a design that everybody agreed upon. So based on this MSA specification agreement, these companies can make products that can work together in a system without compatibility issues. It is almost like an industrial standard.

SFP was designed based on the bigger GBIC interface, but SFP has a much smaller footprint in order to increase port density. That is why SFP is also called mini-GBIC.

SFP modules are classified based on the working wavelength and its distance reach. Let’s take a look at the list here.

For multimode fibers, the SFP module is called SX. SX modules use 850nm wavelength. The distance that SX module supports depends on the network speed. For 1.25 Gbps, the reach is 550 meters. For 4.25 Gbps, SX modules support 150 meters.

For single mode fibers, there are a lot of choices. I am listing the most common types here.

LX modules use 1310nm wavelength laser, and supports up to 10km reach. ZX modules use 1550nm wavelength laser, and supports reach up to 80km. ZX modules also use 1550nm laser, but supports up to 120km reach.

There are also CWDM and DWDM SFP modules, which use multiple wavelengths in the module to support even more bandwidth and distance.

And don’t forget, the MSA also defined a SFP module based on the UTP twisted pair copper cables. But this SFP module currently only supports Gigabit Ethernet.

Traditional SFP modules supports speed up to 4.25 Gbps. But an enhanced version, which is called SFP+, supports up to 10 Gbps, and is becoming more popular on 10 Gigabit Ethernet and 8 Gbit Fibre Channel.

SFP transceivers are used on all types of network applications, including telecommunication, data communication, Storage Area Network.

On the protocol side, there are SFP modules that support SONET/SDH, Gigabit Ethernet, Fibre Channel, Optical Supervisory Channel, and more.

As a network engineer, it is always a good idea to familiar yourself with all these types of SFP modules to facilitate your own work.

Don’t forget to visit http://www.fiberoptics4sale.com for more free fiber optic tutorials.

Source

IoT PCB considerations for Startups

As IoT products are so fresh new, you would assume that getting an IoT printed circuit board (PCB) project off the ground starts by reinventing the wheel and experiencing a massive amount of technical troubles and delays. That is definitely a misconception.
Nevertheless it doesn’t indicate IoT startups have a certain method to fame and fortune. Facing them is quite a few design and manufacturing points that are distinctive to these small products. These considerations should be thought about for the new IoT device to gain success.

On the plus side, it’s essential for IoT startups to be aware of that the foundation for a successful awesome product exists. This implies experience and knowledge relating to the design, fabrication and assembly of such complex products are existing. And the most sage advice is for sensible IoT product business owners and innovators to listen to the recommendations that skilled electronics manufacturing services or EMS vendors have to give. These firms and also their engineering team members already have implemented this work with groundbreaking IoT corporations in Silicon Valley getting into the initial phases of this emerging field.

The PCB of an IoT device is a distinct beast than the traditional one, which is significantly larger and flat. IoT gadgets, on the contrary, are made up mainly of either rigid-flex or flex circuit assemblies, which come with their own categories of design layout, fabrication and assembly considerations and intricacies.

Layout

A foremost consideration is to search for knowledgeable designers who have undertaken quite a lot of rigid-flex PCB designs. PCB space for an IoT device is scarce. So you need the designer to have direct layout working experience to effectively design important components on that little room.

In addition, the majority of IoT gadgets are not fixed; they bring extensive movement and twisting. Here, the knowledgeable designer plays an essential role in calculating bend ratios and lifecycle iterations as a significant part of a design. Other important design layout considerations consist of signal trace thickness, number of rigid and flex circuit layers, copper weight and stiffener placement. Stiffeners are employed on flex circuits to make sure components attached with the flex circuit keep on being properly in place in order to avoid movement.

An extra consideration is through-hole part positioning in rigid-flex circuits. Why’s that critical? Many of IoT items are founded on surface mount device placement. But nonetheless , there might be through-hole components, which are typically positioned on either the rigid section or the flex part of the board. Through-hole components are normally designed to connect input/output or I/O signals to the outside world. That way, those signals can be displayed having an LCD or LED monitor. Through-hole part placement is a critical concern in an IoT device as when applied to the flex portion of the board, proper stiffeners have to be designed and applied for good assembly.

And lastly in the layout category, the high temperature which components bring in ought to be evaluated. IoT gadgets are starting to be sophisticated with rigid-flex and flex circuits featuring more than 12 – 14 layers. A few gadgets are digital. But nonetheless , progressively analog systems are being utilized in IoT systems. Analog circuitry creates a great deal more heat than digital ones. This would mean heat expansion as well as contraction rate are required to be taken into account. In tech lingo, this is actually generally known as the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion or CTE and the good control over it.

Fabrication

Finding the right fabricator is a must and is linked to the EMS business you have determined. The fabricator you are looking for should have IoT PCB fabrication experience. Among important considerations here are making certain good adhesions in between layers on both rigid and flex circuit sides, figuring out all of the crucial calculations and having a great understanding of when current transfers from the rigid side to the flex side.

These fabricators also have to get an in-depth knowledge of incredibly miniature parts like 0201 and also 00105 device packages, package-on-package, and the employment of fine-pitch ball-grid array or BGA packaged devices.

They additionally ought to have knowledge of designing boards with truly tight tolerances in terms of footprint for those sorts of BGA devices, in terms of up-to-date capabilities like laser direct imaging for putting the solder mask on the board. They need to have laser drills for via drilling with sizes of 5 mils or under because these IoT devices could be so modest that a regular drill size of 5 to 8 mils would possibly not be all you need. They might have to go to a 3 mil, which indicates that you must have an enhanced laser drilling capability indoors.

In the event you’re placing via-in-pad, it is a fantastic way to utilize the small space that’s available on the rigid-flex board, yet it creates problems for assembly. If vias are not totally planar or flat in shape, it will be a challenge during the assembly of those tiny BGA packaged devices. This comes about because non-planar surfaces can put at risk the integrity of solder joints.

At times via in pads leave bumps if they’re not cleaned thoroughly after putting the vias and gold finish on the top. In the event that there are bumps, then the solder joints in the assembly for those tiny BGA balls in those IoT devices may not be an appropriate joint. It might create intermittent connections, which can be a larger issue to cope with and solve. It all boils down to which EMS business you are using because they’re the ones who will choose the fabrication house to make a lucrative IoT device for you.

PCB Assembly

It’s essential to go to knowledgeable EMS companies that have productively assembled IoT and wearable PCBs since they have special tooling and fixtures readily out there, which are needed for assembly to ensure that components are placed appropriately, exactly and the printing is completed effectively.

Printing can sometimes be a difficult task for IoT systems. If it’s a rigid-flex board, then there does exist a difference between thicknesses of the rigid and flex circuit portions, which suggests a special fixture is necessary to keep the complete rigid-flex board planar or entirely flat to allow for effective printing to become attained.

Startups need to be all set to opt for the appropriate manufacturing partners and EMS businesses. This way they can ensure they have got ample experience beforehand to get the multitude of design, fabrication and assembly details effectively performed because they are key to a lucrative and prompt IoT product release.

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